The treatment will depend on the underlying cause. Treatment may require use of medications, or in more serious cases, surgery may be required.
- Pain relievers: Acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and similar drugs may help to relieve pain in cases due to injury or trauma.
- Antibiotics or anti-infective medications: Orchitis or epididymitis that is caused by a bacterial infection should be treated with antibiotics, usually for at least 10 days. Doxycycline and quinolones are usually preferred and may be given up to four weeks.
- Tricyclic antidepressants: Oral medications such as amitriptyline or nortriptyline may be prescribed.
Steroid injections may be recommended to treat testicular pain if pain medication isn’t helping.
In certain situations, such as testicular torsion or testicular cancer, surgery may be needed. Testicular torsion is an urgent condition that must be treated promptly to avoid the loss of a testicle from loss of blood supply. Damage can occur after six hours if the blood flow is cut off. Almost 75% of patients must have a testicle removed if surgery is not performed within 12 hours.